RSS Feed


Topic Reading-Vol.1664-10/31/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Your dog smells you -- better than you think
You know that. But do you know much dogs can smell and how they and humans use the ability? Because dogs are extremely cooperative and responsive, they are used to search or detect smells that humans or machines can’t such as missing or buried person, explosives, drugs, insects, objects removed from certain animals.
Moreover, dogs seem to use their extraordinary sensitivity to smell time passing as the odor or smell fades away as time passes. For example, if the owner of a housedog keeps a regular schedule to go out and come home, the dog expects when the owner comes back. They can also detect changes in physical conditions of the owner, such as pregnancy or even cancer.
Isn’t it amazing?
Enjoy reading and thinking how useful it might be if dogs’ sensitivity is used in IoT and Ai.


Topic Reading-Vol.1663-10/30/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Loneliness often follows sudden wealth
Do people around you change so much when you become rich? They look so at least to the person whose financial status changed suddenly.
Maybe it’s better think from the other way. Do you think you can look at your long-time friend in the same way as you’ve been doing when he or she becomes ten or a hundred times wealthier? For example, do you think you will invite your old friend to your same house or go to the restaurant where you’ve been going together while he or she bought a gorgeous new house and dines often at luxurious restaurants? The answer could vary depending on how your friend has become rich, whether he or she earned the wealth by work or luck like the lottery or inheritance.
Upgrading financial position seems require new mindset for both.
Enjoy reading and thinking if your friends and family will be the same when you add three more zeros in your bank account.


Topic Reading-Vol.1662-10/29/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Can you hurt yourself eating chilli peppers?
Like hot and spicy meals? The hotter the food is, the severer the pain or sensation you feel is. But some people who regularly eat very spicy and hot foods seem to feel not pain but pleasure.
When a spicy object is taken, it activates neurons that are responsible for feeling pain. Whether the pain pleases or scorches the eater seems to depend on how regularly they ate such food when they were young. That’s because neurons, which sense pain, are worn out if they are repeatedly set off, and they don’t grow back.
Now you know why some people enjoy very spicy dishes than others.
But why are there hot and spicy things in nature like peppers?
Enjoy reading and learning what hot and spicy means to you.


Topic Reading-Vol.1661-10/28/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Japan's crazy underground bike vaults
Though there isn’t enough space on the ground, there is underground. So many bicycles are recklessly parked, left or abandoned on the streets in Tokyo, especially around train stations. That’s because there aren’t enough bike parking spaces. Pedestrians and stores on the streets are annoyed. Bike-parking watchers patrol around the stations and attach warning tags and tickets on illegally parked or left bikes. In some cases, those bikes are removed from the street and stored by the city. In order to retrieve them, the owner has to pay a few thousand yen fine. Why don’t they make more parking lots for bikes? They can’t because the land space is so limited in this metropolitan city.
That’s why this unique solution was created. Fully-automated underground parking bike vaults. All you need to do is to get your bike registered and obtain a smart card. It takes only eight seconds to safely store your bike underground. You can retrieve your bike by simply swiping the smart card again and the system will bring your bike from the vault.
Enjoy seeing the video and think if you want to use it every day on your to and from work.


Topic Reading-Vol.1660-10/27/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Should obese passengers pay more to fly?
This isn’t a new topic but it’s still worth checking. There are so many extraordinarily over-sized and over-weighted passengers on flights these days that cause inconvenience to both airlines and fellow passengers on board.
What should and can airlines do to deal with increasing number of passengers who can’t fit regular seats or physically bother other passengers? How much does extraordinary extra weight cost to airlines compared to standard passengers? Is it fair to charge the same fare to passengers of normal weight and over weighted? If there is a human right issue, how does it apply to those who are squeezed by the passenger in the next seat? While excess baggage is charged extra fee by weight, passengers are charged by the seat class. How does this sound?
Airfare by weight is a highly controversial topic, isn’t it?
Enjoy reading and thinking what is acceptable to both normal and over weight passengers.


Topic Reading-Vol.1659-10/26/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Growing food with seawater and solar power
Tomatoes grown without soil or fresh water? That’s what exactly a new venture farm is doing in a desert region in southern Australia.
They are growing 15,000 tons of tomatoes a year using desalinated sea water in hydroponic greenhouses. The both desalination and heating-cooling systems are powered by solar energy. Sounds very green to grow red tomatoes, doesn’t it?
Though initial investment for this farming model is substantial, the running cost is significantly lower than conventional farming. This solar-powered hydroculture model seems economically and environmentally advantageous in places where there isn’t enough freshwater to grow vegetables, but not so for staple crops such as rice or wheat that require open and huge space to grow.
Enjoy reading about this new hydroculture model and think where to build this solar-powered hydro-greenhouses, what to grow there and how to finance it.


Topic Reading-Vol.1658-10/25/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Reality Check: Must UK settle EU divorce before it makes trade deals?
Divorce often turns nasty, and sometimes takes long to reach an agreement. And this particular case is going to be a difficult one to settle because it is not a departure of one country from just one party but a union that consists of 27 seven member states. And even the leaving state, the UK, may face difficulty to keep consistency should the incumbent administration overturned during the lengthy process, not to mention the other side of the table. There will be elections after elections among the member states under democracy.
The most unproductive and interfering issue on business and trade is the uncertainty for the future. No one can predict what the EU and UK are going to be like three years from now. This uncertainty put a brake on not only investment but also ongoing business activities.
Enjoy reading and thinking if this is a good time to invest in the UK.


Topic Reading-Vol.1657-10/24/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
500,000 elderly people go missing in China every year
As many as 1,300 senior citizens go missing every day in China. Most of them have some sort of brain or memory impairment and a quarter of them go missing again. Even though the country is geographically and demographically huge, those numbers are still worrisome.
In fact, there are already 114 million seniors whose ages are over 65 in China, nearly the population of Japan. And that number is growing rapidly. It is a hangover from the decades long one child policy. And as reported in the Topic Reading Vol.1653, China’s pairs don’t seem to be planning another child so soon, which means the population is rapidly aging in the most populous country.
In order to cope with this aging problem, the government issued a law that requires the children of elders to take care of or at least pay a visit their parents regularly. But there are still many elders in rural areas whose children live and work away from their hometowns and are unable to look after them.
Enjoy reading and learning this deep-rooted social and demographic problem in China.


Topic Reading-Vol.1656-10/23/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Mongolia: Facing climate change collectively
Herders put their effort and manpower together. This sounds unusual for Mongolian nomads who usually grow herds by family unit. Their wealth has been measured by the size of their herd. However, recent changes in climate left them no choice but to work collectively to manage valuable pastures since there aren’t any regulations on pasture management. They now schedule gazing and rehabilitate grasslands.
In addition, instead of selling their produces individually negotiating with middlemen, they now deal directly with the buyers as group to increase their income. They seem to have more bargaining power and earn more financial income than before.
Enjoy reading the article and seeing photos of the lives of Mongolian nomads.


Topic Reading-Vol.1655-10/22/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Goodbye, Earth: 'We're going to live on Mars in 2027'
A ticket to Mars. It is a planet that attracts many people. Though it is earth’s neighbor planet, a trip to reach the planet takes several months at least and costs millions per traveler just for one-way, and no roundtrip ticket seems to be available at least for a while. The traveler, or better to say the settler in Mars, must spend the entire time with three other travelers for the entire time until another flight arrives two years later. What seems to be important is not only physical health but also teamwork to live and work together for the rest of their lives
Does it sound attractive to you? If you’re interested in settling in the red planet, you may want to start saving money for the trip.
But one question still remains. Why not the Moon but Mars? NASA succeeded in making 10 manned roundtrip missions to the Moon including six landings nearly a half century ago but no commercial trips has been organized or launched yet. A trip to the Moon seems far less risky and demanding. And most importantly, you can choose whether just to visit or live in there for a short time or forever.
Enjoy reading and thinking if you’re interested in living in a place where there is no natural air, sound or water.


Topic Reading-Vol.1654-10/21/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Why Apple and Google are moving into solar energy?
Electricity is needed to power up any tech device, such as a smartphone, tablet or wearable. Also, it is essential for tech companies to manage the rising cost to run their data centers where enormous amount of business and private data is stored. Electricity is indeed the most essential resource for tech industry, including manufacturers, service providers and users.
That’s the reason tech giants like Apple, Google and Amazon are all working on developing solar power plants or businesses. Instead of outsourcing significant portion of their operation cost to inefficient and expensive legendary power companies that use environmentally harmful fossil fuels or nuclear, they are moving to generate electricity themselves by solar power taking advantage of decreasing cost of solar panels.
They may soon use such solar-generated electricity to drive electric cars. The demand for cleaner electricity is surely rising.
Enjoy reading and thinking how much of your energy consumption is provided by solar energy 10 years from now.


Topic Reading-Vol.1653-10/20/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
How quickly can China come back from its one-child policy?
In the previous volume, 1652 on October 19th, you learned about China’s booming metropolitan real estate market to accommodate second child under the new policy. But how many of those prospective couples are in fact planning or working on making another child?
As reported in Vol. 1652, China’s real estate markets in metropolitan cities are over booming. Some people are looking for another room for another child, and in good school district. This urbanization and high cost for education seem to make many couples reluctant to have a second child. And more people are moving into large cities. Only some of the fertile couples can afford to grow two children financially and physically.
And there are other demographic problems such as male-female gender ratio and aging population over all. Children aren’t the only ones who need cares.
Enjoy reading and learning about the complexity of China’s demographic problems.


Topic Reading-Vol.1652-10/19/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Second-child policy sparks demand for larger residences
Real estate market in Chinese metropolitan cities has been on the rise Newly created middle class who are expecting higher income in the future are the major buyers. They buy high rise apartments not only for their own home to live in but also for investment. Thus, everyone is looking for similar properties that are located in highly popular districts.
Now there is another boost to this trend. The newly announced second-child policy. Many of those who earn good money and live in metropolitan cities are planning or working on making another child. When a family size increases, do does the demand for space. Therefore, not only the ones planning another child but also those who are eager to invest on the rising market are buying large space apartments in good education districts. Consequently, the prices for such properties are skyrocketing.
Enjoy reading and thinking of the market dynamics in China.


Topic Reading-Vol.1651-10/18/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
What nobody tells you about becoming the boss
Which sounds more challenging, becoming a top or being a top?
To become a top of any organization from a rank-and-file member, you need to prove your qualifications by the performance through your jobs and trust by others, not to mention the competitive advantage over other candidates.
To be in a good top management position, you’ll need to be patient with your staff because no one is perfect. Also, you want to have someone who could give you good advice. As the top of the management team, you’ll hear bad news most of the time and make difficult decisions all the time. And there are no coworkers to share such burdens because you’re required to help them, not to be helped. In order to cope with such stressful and lonely situation, you may want to have valuable advice from someone outside of the organization.
It seems that the higher you go, the more challenging you’ll face.
Enjoy reading and thinking if you want to be the top of the organization or group you’re in now.


Topic Reading-Vol.1650-10/17/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
India’s Biryani Wars
The country is so diverse. Regions, ethnicities, religions, languages, cultures, social classes and food. One of the popular dishes that is also so diverse by regional traditions but still common across the subcontinent is Biryani. It is a rice dish made with different ingredients depending on the tradition, and is served as the centerpiece of ceremonies and also as street food. It is prepared in a large pan and served to many.
While the way it is prepared and what are in the dish vary, Biryani is loved by anyone in the diverse country.
Food often unites the divided, doesn’t it?
Enjoy reading and thinking what food is your national icon.


Topic Reading-Vol.1649-10/16/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
New Zealand's plan to save the kiwi
Not the fruit but the bird they are trying to save. Just the size of a chicken, the kiwi is New Zealand’s proud national icon. This flightless indigenous bird spices used to be around everywhere in the islands but the estimated population is now only 68,000. Mainly dogs and stouts in the wild are to blame. Kiwis live in forests and become active at night. One surprising fact is that a female kiwi lays an egg which is as heavy as nearly a quarter of her own body weight. That is the largest egg-to-mother weight ratio among birds.
Now the government is taking on a new initiative not only to save the bird from going extinct but also to increase the population to a sustainable level without humans’ intervention. They are trying to roam 100,000 kiwis for the next 15 years, more than the estimated present population of the bird. Since kiwi are vulnerable to most wild animals, the success of their attempt seems to lie how they are protected from their predators.
Enjoy reading and thinking if roaming increases kiwi population.


Topic Reading-Vol.1648-10/15/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Thailand introduces new anti-corruption court
Dedicated court to judge corruptions? That sounds like an innovative initiative by the semi-military-ruled country where numbers of political upheavals have been seen over the decades.
The intentions of this newly established court are to speed up the process and handle more cases, as well as to expand the public awareness of the consequence of corruption.
While the government aren’t expecting immediate success of this new court, they seem to be hoping to gain confidence from the public for their attempts to solidify their legitimacy to rule the country.
Enjoy reading and thinking if this new judicial system functions independently and neutrally from political influences.


Topic Reading-Vol.1647-10/14/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Why is China buying up the global supply of donkeys?
Tiger penises, Bear bile, elephant tusk and shark fins are all Chinese delicacies. The problem of those are they are animals and mammals that live in nature and their populations are in danger. Thus, poaching and trading of them and their body parts are prohibited.
But what about donkeys? The donkey is a domesticated member of the horse family, widely kept in Africa. The supply and demand for donkeys had been consistent and sustainable until China started importing them substantially. Is that rising demand for dishes?
In some part, yes, like Donkey Burger in Hebei Province but it’s mainly to produce traditional remedies from their gelatin. As more people get richer and look for more luxurious remedies, the demand for donkey hide has been surging to the level some African countries ban or restrict the export of donkeys.
Enjoy reading and learning about the influence of a super buying power.


Topic Reading-Vol.1646-10/13/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
What happens if Rodrigo Duterte dumps the US?
Just in general, which sounds more reasonable to you, a lot of words but very few actions, or a few words with actions?
In the case of the Philippines, the former may be preferred for the bilateral relationship with its long term ally, the U.S. , and the security in Southeast Asia. Ever since he took the president office of the country with 7,000 islands, Philippines President Rodrigo Duterte has made a series of provoking comments on the US ambassador, president and the relationship.
Though the U.S. government have been patient and making effort not to make those comments by the populist leader seriously, at least officially, that may not last so long.
What the new president and the new administration will do?
What if the Philippines actually move to develop new relationship with Moscow or Beijing?
Enjoy reading and thinking if those seven thousand islands turned red.


Topic Reading-Vol.1645-10/12/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Around New York City in 9 extraordinary sandwiches
Some suggest to cut meat, especially red meat consumption, for an environment reason. In the meantime, New Yorkers’ appetite for deli sandwiches seems unshakable unless better options are provided.
Though totally subjectively chosen, these are nine extraordinary good sandwiches in Big Apple where there are great numbers of specialty sandwich shops are competing to grab the stomach share, not to mention the famous hot dogs stands.
Besides the most popular deli and meat sandwiches, there are some vegetarian choices that look no less tasty. As smoking makes some red meat a perfect ingredient for deli sandwiches, cheese, sauce and roast also delight your mouth and stomach.
Enjoy seeing the photos and reading the descriptions of New York’s creative sandwiches!


Topic Reading-Vol.1644-10/11/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
What would happen if the whole world went vegetarian?
Traditions, beliefs, cost or health. There are many reasons why some people are vegetarians. In fact, nearly 30% of India’s population are vegetarians. But there is another reason people should go vegetarian.
Environment. Greenhouse gas emissions from food production is in fact larger than that from driving cars. If no red meat is produced, emission by food production is estimated to drop by 60%. More surprisingly, approximately two-thirds of the agricultural land space is used for livestock. Although not all that space can be converted to farmland to produce crops, considerable size of new space can be used for farms and forests.
Though eliminating the entire meat consumption sounds intolerable, reducing every portion of red meat, by consciousness of the environment and health benefits along with higher tax, might be feasible.
Enjoy reading and thinking if and when the world leaders and people think and act more consciously of the environment and their own health.


Topic Reading-Vol.1643-10/10/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
The countries where cash is on the verge of extinction.
A charge to deposit cash? For many, it still sounds unbelievable. But in some countries where banks see cash is just burdensome means of transaction, they discourage their customers to deposit or withdraw cash from their accounts by charging fees. More surprisingly, at least for now, many stores, ranging from small bakeries to supermarkets, take only or at least mainly cards or electric payments.
This cashless trend doesn’t seem to stop only within efficiency-obsessed Netherlands or Scandinavian countries. In America and China, payment via smartphones is getting popular. Even in Africa where there are very few banks to handle cash transactions, mobile phones are becoming their de-facto payment and transaction means.
In an era when children are growing with smartphones, the day cash is seen as just a piece of paper may not be so far in the future.
Enjoy reading and thinking how cash-dependent you are.


Topic Reading-Vol.1642-10/9/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Storm chasers: the typhoon turbine that could power Japan for 50 years
Typhoons often cause devastating damages to East and South East Asia. The winds of typhoons are strong enough to destroy houses, blow away things and knock down trees. No one enjoys the power of the furious winds.
While there are increasing number of wind turbines across the world, none of them is designed to take advantage of this enormous typhoon winds. In fact, they are vulnerable to such strong winds. But what if such massive power of typhoon winds turns wind turbines?
Yes. A Japanese engineer entrepreneur is aggressively pursuing the idea of creating typhoon durable wind turbines to generate power. How close is he to realize the idea?
Enjoy reading and thinking of a day when people welcome typhoons.


Topic Reading-Vol.1641-10/8/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Wanda takes the park fight to Disney
Can wolves beat a tiger? That’s what the China’s largest real estate giant, also an owner of thousands of cinemas and movie production company in America, is trying to prove.
They are developing fifteen multi-billion-dollar theme parks to be completed by 2020 to defend the country being invaded by Shanghai Disneyland. Though they don’t have strong franchise like Disney characters do, they have long history to present. For example, they’ve just opened this Hefei Wanda Cultural Tourism City in the eastern province of Anhui right in time for China’s national holidays. They recreated a famous battle that took place 1,633 years ago.
The theme park can be reached in four hours by the high-speed train from Shanghai. Since they are aiming at a global-level theme park, the ticket price is also set at the global standard, which is still too expensive for ordinary Chinese people, especially the local residents.
Sounds quite challenging, doesn’t it?                                                        
Enjoy reading and thinking if which attracts more visitors, history or fantasy.


Topic Reading-Vol.1640-10/7/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Russia plans to ban 'baby boxes' for unwanted infants
Baby boxes in Russia. Just 20 boxes in the world largest country have saved 50 unwanted babies for the last five years. Those are the boxes that mothers, fathers or anyone, can leave unwanted babies safely without leaving their identities. The practice of placing such rescue boxes isn’t limited in Russia. There are numbers of countries that have such boxes or facilities including the US, Japan and China. This practice is highly disputed as to whether it encourages more mothers to abandon their babies or saves more babies from being dumped in the woods or toilets to die. In fact, such baby-saving installment isn’t new. Churches and temples were a common place for desperate mothers to leave their unwanted babies. Today, there are stages to avoid accepting or making babies, birth control, contraception, abortion and baby-box that are all highly controversial.
Enjoy reading and thinking what is behind the 50 babies that have been saved in five years. It is too many or few? 


Topic Reading-Vol.1639-10/6/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Swiss lawmakers approve step towards face-veil ban
It is indeed controversial. 88 for and 87 against. That was the result of the vote in the lower house of the Swiss parliament whether to ban on face veils or not, targeting Muslim women.
This tiny but wealthy Aline country has only a population of eight million, with fewer than five per cent are Muslims and only few of them wear the face-covering clothing.
So why did they try to ban face veils? The supporters say the ban will help preserve Swiss culture, curb radicalism and maintain respect for the dignity of women. The nation already banned to build new minarets in 2009.
Although the proposed law still needs to be approved in the upper house and the government, it shows underlying sentiment against immigrants and their foreign traditions and religions.
Enjoy reading and thinking if such movement by populists and protectionists increases in other countries.


Topic Reading-Vol.1638-10/5/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Chinese cyber spies may be watching you, experts warn
Don’t open an attachment, unless you’re sure that is sent by someone you know AND that is in fact sent by the person. Nowadays, cyber criminals and attackers can pretend themselves as one of your acquaintances. Once you open a malicious attachment, your PC is under someone else’s control. Don’t simply assume you have nothing to lose or there is no critical information in your files. The attacker could use your PC as a tool to do harmful acts to others or criminal acts.
Who are behind such cybercrimes? Well, that could be anyone from anywhere. But the US agencies and security experts suspect that many of such accesses and attempts are backed by its archrival.
There was the Cold War in the previous century. Now, it seems that a cyber war is underway.
Enjoy reading and thinking if your PC or tablet has sufficient security protection.


Topic Reading-Vol.1637-10/4/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Top 5 foods to boost your child's brainpower
Children’s brains grow fast, much faster than their bodies do in their early ages. That means if they concentrate on classes, they learn a lot. Of course, interest drives motivation and concentration. But food also plays vital role to boost child’s brain power.
Eggs, oily fish, whole grain or oats, beans, and milk and yogurt are highly recommended foods to boost brain power. They are no different from popular items on daily menu. In fact, most of them can be taken just in breakfast without extra thought or preparation. As for oily fish, there is no need to eat it every day. A few times a week is just sufficient.
Maybe eating brain-friendly foods is a better learning support than going to a cram school or hiring a private tutor. Then what about your own brain? Is it still growing? Do those foods help your brain run faster, remember more or think better?
Enjoy reading and thinking if you should start reviewing your own diet.


Topic Reading-Vol.1636-10/3/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
World largest matrilineal society
Matrilineal. Unlike patrilineal, women inherit the family line and fortune. When a couple gets married, the groom moves into the bride’s house and receives the dowry. It’s the same tradition except the couple’s roles are opposite.
This rare tradition is still kept in an ethic group in the highlands of West Sumatra, the Minangkabau. While keeping this distinct custom, they adopted various religions such as Hindu, Buddhism, and Islam. Another unique characteristic they inherited from their ancestors is shape of buffalo horns. It is said that a buffalo fight took place for a war against an intruder and protected their land.
Sounds very interesting, doesn’t it?
Enjoy reading, checking the photos and think if women’s and men’s faces reflect matrilineal.
matrilineal [mætrəlɪniəl] inheriting or determining descent through the female line.<-> patrilineal


Topic Reading-Vol.1635-10/2/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
World's worst restoration? China's Great Wall covered in cement
Great Work in China? It seems that another restoration work is necessary to bring China’s proud historical monument back to what it used to look.
The Great Wall of China, which stretches more than 20,000 kilometers over 15 provincial regions, was built over many dynasties. A two-kilometer section of the wall in Liaoning province, is now covered by a new protective layer that was added on top of the wall. The problem is there is no trace of bricks but cement, and it looks just like a paved road.
Chinese netizens seemed so unhappy about the poor restoration work on the great wall that criticisms went viral on the Internet.
Preservation and restoration aren’t easy tasks. Presently, only eight percent of the Ming Dynasty wall is still well-preserved, while 31 percent has almost disappeared.
Enjoy reading and thinking how easily great things can be destroyed and how difficult it is to restore it.


Topic Reading-Vol.1634-10/1/2016

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Where does Canada’s accent come from?
Canada sits north of the U.S. and is famous for its proud icon, maple leaf. Indeed, the nature is Canada’s most important resource to attract visitors and businesses. Many assume that they speak the same language as Americans do and in most cases, yes.
However, there are a few distinctively different expressions and pronunciations from the U.S. like “eh”, which is commonly used instead of “huh” or as a question tag. And even within Canada, which spreads from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast, there are considerable differences in the way they speak or pronounce the same language.
It seems that while many people want to be more open and adaptive to other cultures, peoples and languages, they also want to be part of their local community.
Enjoy reading and learning what are behind of the language difference in Canada and the U.S.