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Topic Reading-Vol.2455-12/31/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers
50 of the world's best desserts
What’s your favorite sweet? Do you have any sweet that you unexpectedly enjoyed on some occasion? There are all different kinds of sweets and deserts in the world, such as cakes, puddings, ice creams, tarts, pies, rolls, and cookies. While it is probably impossible for anyone to taste all the sweets in the world. you could try some of the most attracting ones to you should you visit the place where the sweet is popular or find ones near your residence.
Here are, though they are subjectively chosen, 50 of the most recommended sweets that you might want to try during the holiday season or whenever you have a chance.
Enjoy seeing the photos and checking the descriptions and have a sweet dream to finish your busy year and welcome a fresh new year.


Topic Reading-Vol.2454-12/30/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
10 things to do in Budapest during winter
The name Budapest was given when previously separate towns of Buda, Pest, and Obuda were unified in 1873. The city lies on the two banks of the Danube and the eastern part of the city is a plain (Pest), while the western part is hilly (Buda). It is the capital of Hungary with a population of 17 million.
Though Budapest is not visited by as many tourists as Paris or London, it offers a cozy winter atmosphere with romantic architectural creations especially during the holiday season with Christmas markets, an outdoor ice rink, lighted tram, and hot spas to name a few. You can also cruise the Donau, visit castles, and enjoy a performing art in the gorgeous State Opera House which was completed in 1884.
Enjoy reading and seeing the photos of one of the most beautiful cities in Europe.


Topic Reading-Vol.2453-12/29/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Airlines enforce Australia's 7-kilogram cabin bag limit
Most air travelers are aware that there are limitations to the number of items and the allowable dimensions for each item they can carry on with them to board their flight. But only a few of them know that there are also weight limitations to their carry-on items. That’s because the number and size limitations are regularly enforced at the gate. You might have seen a boarding passenger arguing with the ground crew about a suitcase or a microwave oven that they are trying to bring in with them. But there are in fact maximum weight allowances for carry-on items, especially for economy class passengers. How strictly the regulations are enforced seems to depend on the airline, the season, and the ground crew. But during holiday seasons, too many passengers try to carry too many and too much items with them to avoid waiting at the luggage pick-up. Of course, everyone wants to get out of the destination airport as soon as the flight arrives hurrying to their homes or hotels.
So, what if the airline has decided to strictly enforce the weight restrictions on your carry-on bags? Checking in your luggage at the gate is the last thing you want to do, isn’t it?
Enjoy reading and reorganize your luggage for your next air travel.


Topic Reading-Vol.2452-12/28/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Cambodia makes record breaking ivory haul at port
A container had been sitting in a port in Phnom Penh, Cambodia since last year. In it, over 1,000 elephant trunks, which weighed more than three tons, were found. This means over 500 elephants had been killed by poachers for trade. Someone bought them from the poachers and sold them to a trader. Whoever abandoned this must have paid a fortune to buy and transported the ivory from somewhere in Africa trying to sell them probably to China and/or Vietnam where ivory is most appreciated. This is one of the three massive ivory smugglings for the last few years found in and bound for Cambodia. In fact, there was another container-load of ivory seized in Mozambique before shipping to Cambodia this past April.
Despite the international and local effort in Africa to stop ivory trade, it is still practiced by someone who is looking for a huge return on risks. Indeed, when the supply is limited, the price goes up as long as the demand remains.
Enjoy reading and think of any way to stop killing elephants just for their trunks, or to discourage people from owning or buying ivory.


Topic Reading-Vol.2451-12/27/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Japan medical schools 'rigged women's results'
Some of Japan’s medical schools have been practicing silent sexism treatment, not to their patients or students but to their applicants. At least nine medical schools admitted that they treated female applicants unfairly at least for the last few years on the grounds that women are not tough enough to take on medical practices while they are good at face-to-face interview tests compared to men. If such practice is rationalized and actually have been implemented, those schools must have been discriminating female candidates much longer than just a few years they admitted.
Are female doctors treated fairly in hospitals? Aren’t female medical students discriminated? What about other medical schools that were not named this time?
While it is openly said more women are needed in the cabinet, diet, corporate boards and management, numbers clearly show that there is obviously a gender bias and gap even in education in Japan.
By the way, how was this gender discriminating conduct revealed?
Enjoy reading and learn how Japan’s medical schools treat women.


Topic Reading-Vol.2450-12/26/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Xi, other leaders attend 40th anniversary gala
China had been the largest and most prosperous country for centuries until the 16th century when it started stagnated while European countries started to prosper. Especially during the 19th and much of the 20th century, China’s economy and prosperity declined because of the foreign invasions, civil war, and political confusions. But in 1978, then de-facto leader Deng Xiaoping initiated an economic reform called Reform and Opening-up. Shenzhen, then a small fishing village near Hong Kong, was chosen as the first special economic zone in 1980 to introduce capitalism economy and invite foreign investment. De-collectivization of agriculture and permission of private enterprises took place in the early period of the reform followed by privatization and contracting out of the much state-owned industry and the lifting of price controls, protectionist policies, and regulations in the second stage. In 2001, China joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) and accoladed economic and trade reforms, and in 2008, further strengthened the economic and reform initiative to conquer the global financial crisis. In 2010, its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) surpassed Japan’s and became the second largest economy in the world only after the USA. Over the course of these four decades, infrastructures, high-tech industries, and middle class were created while poverty was significantly reduced. Also, the military was modernized and much-better-equipped and the ruling mechanism was disciplined. Now, China is more influential in global trade, economy, politics, security, and environment.
Enjoy reading about the gala to commemorate the 40th anniversary of Reform and Opening-up of China.
and watch the video if you are interested in learning the numbers to show their growth over the last four decades.


Topic Reading-Vol.2449-12/25/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Virgin Galactic's supersonic plane reaches space
On the ground, a continuously habitable building that has over 40 floors and is taller than 150 meters is called a skyscraper. There are hundreds of such tall buildings rising around the world. In the air, commercial flights usually cruise at an altitude of above 10,000 meters. Up to these altitudes, passengers can economically and comfortably enjoy their trip without wearing a special suit or mask. But when you want to go higher, say 80,000 meters or above, there aren’t any commercial flights servicing passengers, yet. This layer of earth’s atmosphere is called thermosphere because of the high temperatures due to absorption of highly energetic solar radiation and is also regarded as space. In order to bring people up to space, a spacecraft is needed to endure the heat, radiation and no atmosphere, not to mention the power to ascend against gravity.
Now, two companies have been racing to commercialize space traveling. One is Virgin Galactic by Virgin Group’s Richard Branson and the other is Blue Origin by Amazon’s Jeff Bezos. Both billionaires have spent their time and fortune to realize what has been thought as a dream trip. And a test flight of the former entrepreneur’s spacecraft has made a successful test flight.
Soon, you may want to go to the Spaceport America in New Mexico, USA, the world's first purpose-built commercial spaceport to board the spacecraft.
Enjoy reading and think when you want to see our planet from space.


Topic Reading-Vol.2448-12/24/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Catalonia’s beloved scatological Christmas custom
A defecator? That doesn’t sound like a decorative item for the holiday seasons. But in Catalonia, a northeastern region of Spain, it is a centuries-old tradition locally known as “Caganer.” A defecating clay-made figure wearing black trousers, a white shirt, and the classic red Catalan cap is regarded as a symbol of good luck, fortune, and prosperity. Catalans think defecating depicts a natural act as opposed to being rude or unpleasant. Sounds so true as mothers and doctors both welcome baby’s defecating as a sign of good health.
But why Caganers in the holiday season in a devout Catholic region?
Enjoy reading and seeing this traditional figure for the holiday season.


Topic Reading-Vol.2447-12/23/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
China built more skyscrapers in 2018 than ever before
Another record year for China and for the world. 88 skyscrapers, a tall building whose height exceeds 200 meters, have been constructed in China alone. The number represents a little over sixty percent of all the skyscrapers built in the world during the year. To your surprise, 14 of the 143 skyscrapers completed around the world were in Shenzhen, part of the Pearl River Delta megalopolis north of Hong Kong. The city of Shenzhen was formed only four decades ago and was established as the first special economic zone in 1980. It is now a mega city of electronics, high-tech, and IT industries.
With this many tall buildings, a lot of hyper-speed elevators must be in operation in China. Also, China has the largest high-speed railroad network in the world. If you want to enjoy riding high-speed vehicles vertically or horizontally, China is the place to go.
Enjoy reading and learn about China’s passion to grow higher.


Topic Reading-Vol.2446-12/22/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Japan picks 'disaster' character to define 2018
2018 doesn’t seem to be a happy year for many Japanese people. Too many natural disasters like a flood, typhoon, earthquake, and heatwave caused casualties and damages across the country. And Japan’s stock market index is going to close at a lower point than the beginning of the year. As a result, “disaster” has been chosen as the year’s symbol kanji character by vote. The word chosen last year was “north,” having been threatened by missile tests by North Korea. The year before the last, “gold” was chosen, celebrating the record number of medals in the Rio Olympic Games.
As 2018 is closing, western leaders are facing domestic challenges, the world climate talks are failing, and refugees are still struggling to find places to settle. Does “disaster” also symbolize the year in other places around the world?
Enjoy reading and think of a word that symbolizes this year for you.


Topic Reading-Vol.2445-12/21/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Boeing launches business jet capable of world's longest flight
Another Boeing’s story (after yesterday’s Vol.2444). This time it’s not about the largest but the longest, not about the building but an aircraft, and not for thousands of workers but for a limited number of executives who want to cut travel time and hassles more than anyone. Boeing’s new BBJ 777X, a modified version of the 777, can fly over 20,000 kilometers, which could connect any two cities in the world without refueling. This easily surpasses the longest-haul commercial flight by Airbus A350-900 ULR, Ultra-Long Range, that flies 16,700 kilometers between London and Singapore in 17 hours.
Who can afford such an exclusive business jet? At least, 21 customers are already waiting for the delivery.
Enjoy reading and learn about this exclusive benefits and luxury of the world longest flight.


Topic Reading-Vol.2444-12/20/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
What’s it’s like to work in the biggest building in the world
The still world’s largest building structure was constructed over a half century ago to produce the then the largest airliner, Boeing 747, nicknamed a jumbo jet. In order to manufacture several of such airplanes, a 13.3-million-cubic-meter factory was built in the forest near Seattle, Washington, USA. The mega-factory is still producing Boeing’s fleet of 767, 777, and 787 models and is worked by as many as 10,000 workers in each eight-hour shift. There are a fire station, medical services, and over 1,000 bikes that help workers move faster.
It is also the world largest unairconditioned structure. In summer, massive doors are opened to get fresh air in and in winter, heat from the lights and human bodies warm the workers and visitors.
Enjoy reading the article about the scale of the world largest building structure and think if you want to visit and see it.
p.s. There is also a short video that shows the scale of the factory.


Topic Reading-Vol.2443-12/19/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Gardening could be a hobby that helps you live 100 years
Has the secret of longevity revealed? A study to five blue-zones, places where people live longer, found that gardening is another common practice among the residents along with other more-known factors, such as social supports, moderate daily exercises, and healthy diet.
Indeed, people who garden tend to grow plants, vegetables and/or fruits they like. So, they naturally enjoy eating fresh seasonal vegetables. Gardening, like farming, also requires daily or regular care that requires moderate outdoor exercise. Furthermore, those gardeners, like old-time farmers, often gather and exchange what they’ve harvested. Gardening seems like an all-inclusive activity for longevity, doesn’t it?
If you check yesterday’s Topic Reading Vol.2443, there is a 107-year-old man who has been a hairdresser for 96 years. Though he doesn’t do outdoor gardening, he does use scissors to cut and trim his customers’ hair indoor. What he does sounds similar to what gardeners do, doesn’t it?
Enjoy reading and think if you enjoy these four pillars of longevity, physical activity, mental engagement, social connection, and healthy diet.


Topic Reading-Vol.2442-12/18/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
The barber who's been cutting hair for 96 years
He’s the world most experienced hair cutter. Anthony Mancinell in New Windsor, New York has been cutting others’ hair since he was eleven. He is now 107 years old and still doing the same job. He claims that there is no secret to living and working that long, just eating and doing things like what others do. He still drives to work and does all the house chores by himself. His wife passed away 14 years ago, and he misses her a lot, so he visits her cemetery every day on his way to work. The only thing he doesn’t want is doing nothing at home. That seems to be why he has been working this long.
Enjoy watching the video about how this most experienced hair cutter does his work and drives out.


Topic Reading-Vol.2441-12/17/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Bonsai masters: The ancient secrets behind their centuries-old trees
Bon-sai is a Japanese artform of miniaturized, container-grown trees that are carefully cultivated to mimic the shape and scale of full-size trees. The word “bon-sai” directly means tray-planting. The horticultural practice was originally brought in by Japanese Buddhist students who studied in China in the sixth century.
In order to grow these miniature trees in a healthy and beautiful condition, carers must dedicate their time and attention as intensively as to look after children. They can’t be simply placed inside to protect them from heat, cold, or winds. They need to be placed outside to grow in nature. They need to be trimmed and wired properly to form admirable shapes. They also need to be replanted to a different tray and trimmed their roots time to time so that they generate new roots.
Yet bonsai is art that is perfected by human’s hands and care, the inner strength and beauty are created by the natural growth of the tree.
Enjoy reading and seeing the photos of this artificial yet natural beauty.


Topic Reading-Vol.2440-12/16/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
Dubai launches sail-thru supermarket for yacht owners
If there are a number of drive-through shops, banks, and restaurants, why not a sail-through grocery shop? That’s the concept of this new floating retail emporium in Dubai operated by a local franchise of French supermarket Carrefour. Expected shoppers aren’t limited to sailors, jet skiers, or boat rowers in the water but also include swimmers, suffers or beachgoers on the beach. They can stop by this floating grocery shop to get drinks, snacks or suntan lotions, or call them or use the app to get the grocery delivered.
Though the local grocery chain claims that this is the first of this kind, there are hundreds of floating marketplaces in Thailand and Vietnam that sell daily necessities for nearby residents and tourists.
Enjoy reading and think how long this sail-thru grocery store will float in the water.


Topic Reading-Vol.2439-12/15/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers,
How AI is changing the music industry
How are the songs you hear from the radio or your smartphone arranged? A song is first written, and then performed, recorded, mastered and delivered to the listener. Nowadays, as AI keeps learning from uploaded songs and tunes, the algorithm becomes more creative to write music, though such tunes are not as innovative as the ones humans create. Some part of the music can also be played by AI synthesizer. The recording process is of course done digitally. The next step is mastering. It is the final step of post-production to balance sonic elements of a stereo mix and optimize playback experience for any system or device, such as equalization, compression, and stereo enhancement. It’s like processes make the sky bluer and the greens greener in a photo. These processes require expertise but are still simple enough to be done by AI. Indeed, AI-based mastering services now master music very inexpensively and instantly once a song is uploaded. Another skill job that is taken over by AI.
Will we soon enjoy listening to music by an AI singer-song writer-master-producer labeled by Google or Amazon?
Enjoy reading and learn about this alternative solution by AI.


Topic Reading-Vol.2438-12/14/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers
5G smartphones are coming in 2019. What does that mean?
What is 5G? It is the fifth generation of wireless technology. It not only makes communications much faster but also allows people, things and operations to stay connected nearly real time.
For example, you can watch, upload or download high-quality videos without delay or lag. Cars can be connected all the time so that real-time traffic information and navigation will become available. Machines and robots can be operated remotely and precisely so that surgeries can be conducted by a surgeon in a different place. E-sports players can take part in a competition from anywhere in the world.
In order to enjoy such benefits, users need to have a 5G capable smartphone and get a new service contract. That’s simple and easy. But for network providers, they need to make a huge investment to build a new 5G network. All these are happening underground for now, but they will start to become available from 2019.
The faster the better? If the price is the same or lower, yes. But how much premium are you willing to pay for this new communication standard?
Enjoy reading and think when you want to jump on this brand-new bandwagon and how much premium are you willing to pay for it.


Topic Reading-Vol.2437-12/13/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers
Cambodia releases surrogate mothers who agree to keep children
Surrogacy is a method to assist reproduction for intended parents who can’t do so on their own, such as couples that have difficulty in fertilizing or genetic defect, mothers that are unable to carry a child, or same-sex couples. A surrogacy mother gets artificially inseminated with the father’s sperm and then carries and delivers the baby. Therefore, she is the baby’s biological mother because her egg was fertilized by the father’s or donor’s sperm. There is another method called gestational surrogate. It uses in vitro fertilization, IVF, to gather eggs from the mother and fertilize them with sperm from the father and place the embryo into the surrogate mother. In this case, the surrogate is called the birth mother because she has no genetic ties to the child.
In either case, surrogacy could be commercially arranged within or beyond borders. In countries like India, Thailand, and Cambodia, such commercial surrogacy is regarded as human trafficking and banned.
Whether they are illegally or commercially arranged and carried, surrogate babies are innocent even though their biological or birth mothers are not.
Enjoy reading the article and learn about the recent surrogacy practice in Cambodia.


Topic Reading-Vol.2436-12/12/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers
Cold remedies
Winter season in the northern hemisphere. The air gets drier and viruses become more active and infectious. Only a few people seem to be free from cold, the most common illness humans get. Since cold viruses change their appearances as they pass from one person to the another, they confuse our defense mechanism. That’s why, unlike chickenpox, there is no one vaccine that makes you cold resistant.
While there are more than enough placebos that can be purchased over the counter or prescribed by physicians, they may only ease the symptoms at best. There also are many said-to-be effected foods and nutrients, such as chicken soup, orange juice, garlic, vitamin C, and zinc. It is not scientifically proven yet as to how effective these are to prevent you from getting infected, ease the symptoms, and cure and make you recover from the cold. One thing for sure is to take good and balanced nutrients daily, so that your immune system gets more active, which tries to flush invading cells out of your body. And of course, turn your smartphone off and take a good sleep.
Enjoy reading and learn how effective commonly known cold remedies are.


Topic Reading-Vol.2435-12/11/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers
Why the world is becoming more allergic to food
Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by the body's immune system. Common food allergic reactions are fish, shellfish, peanuts, tree nuts like walnuts, eggs, milk, sesame, and wheat. An allergic reaction varies by person and the amount of exposure to a particular food. It could be just itching or swelling in the mouth, vomiting or diarrhea, and in a severe case, tightening the throat and trouble breathing, or drop in blood pressure, which could be fatal.
The problem is that the rate of confirmed food allergies among children has been increasing over the last few decades especially in western countries and also in urban environments. It is still unclear what factors to blame. The most likely factors are pollution, dietary habits, and less exposure to microbes, parasites and less exposure to the sun.
In any case, clear and accurate food labeling, avoidance of allergic foods, and a proper diagnosis and treatment are all essential to refrain from allergy-producing problems.
Read the article and learn what food allergy is about.


Topic Reading-Vol.2434-12/10/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers
Nearly 1 million people sit China's civil servant exam
While many young Chinese college students are dreaming to be a high-flying entrepreneur, quite a number of people and their parents seem to think to become a civil servant is more attractive than other job opportunities. Indeed, over 900,000 people applied for 15,500 national civil servant job positions and took exams this year. That sounds very competitive as only one out of every 63 candidates can get the “iron bowl” job.
If there was a bowl made of iron, it would be very solid and difficult to break. Then an “iron bowl” job means it is a very stable job or a job you will never lose. The “civil servant” is still considered an “iron bowl” job by many Chinese people. This makes the competition very fierce, as hundreds of thousands of people fight for civil servant jobs every year. Once people become official civil servants, their life can be worry-free. It’s a decent and secure job.
But this is not limited only to Chinese people. In India, over 23 million people applied for 10,000 available jobs for the state-owned India Railways.
(Reported in Vol.2251 “The jobs in India that attract thousands of applicants.”)
Indeed, there are a lot of people who are looking for an iron bowl or iron rail job in these most populous countries.
Enjoy reading and learn how fierce the competitions are to be employed by the state.


Topic Reading-Vol.2433-12/9/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers
Totally awesome: Seven ways you use Americanisms every day
What influences the most to a language? Culture, media, immigrants, technologies, or new practices? English originated in England, spread across Great Britain, and was adopted in the territories of the British Empire, such as Australia and America. After the World Wars, America’s influence started to surpass the UK’s in many areas and became the world’s most influential country, especially in media, entertainment, and education that affect numbers of people not only in the country but also to other parts of the world. As the US flourishes, it has become more independent in the language and developed new words and altered pronunciation and spelling; such as highway for motorway and color for colour. After the second millennium, American English became the de-facto standard of the world English. Now anywhere you go, you’ll most likely hear local English TV stations use American English, even in the old British territories, like India or New Zealand.
However, as the number of non-native English speakers increases, such a distinction may not be so critical. Yes, English seems to become the most commonly used language on the globe. So, it’s no longer an issue of British or American but how well practically and effectively the language is used.
Enjoy reading and think which spelling or pronunciation you want to learn for the time being.


Topic Reading-Vol.2432-12/8/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers
How George H.W. Bush helped end the Cold War peacefully
Born on June 12, 1924, Massachusetts, George Herbert Walker Bush, was a two-term U.S. vice president under Ronald Reagan, from 1981 to 1989. He then became the 41st U.S. president and served a four-year term until 1993. Before starting his political career in 1967, he was a World War II naval aviator and Texas oil industry executive.
During his 12-year tenure in the White House, he witnessed the collapse of the Berlin Wall, the Soviet Union, and subsequently the Cold War. He dedicated himself to lead the nation and its allies to help establish the new world order with their old enemy.
He peacefully passed away on the last day of November 2018 at the age of 94, only seven months after his wife, Barbara’s death. His eldest son, George Walker Bush, also served as the 43rd president of the U.S.
Enjoy reading about a man who served the nation for years during the last world transformation.


Topic Reading-Vol.2431-12/7/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers
The US averaged at least 1 deadly mass shooting a month in 2018
Every year, over 10,000 lives are taken away by gun violence in the U.S. This means an average of 30 gun-victims every day. In some cases, multiple people are gunned down often by assault or military grade weapons, such as AR-15, AK-47 or M-16. When four or more people are killed, not including the suspect, it is generally called a mass shooting.
Though the year of 2018 has yet to close its curtain, there already have been 18 such incidents in the US as of the end of November. They took place at a house, synagogue, and high school, leaving family members and friends, worshippers, and students gunned down on the floors while they were having peaceful moments.
Why are there so many gun violence victims in a country where most people enjoy freedom and opportunities? Can democracy, government transparency, higher education, wealth, or heavily-armed police force ever reduce such violence?
Read and learn how serious and repetitive US gun violence is.


Topic Reading-Vol.2430-12/6/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers
New Zealand beached whales: Why are so many getting stranded?
In late November, scores of whales were found dead on several beaches in New Zealand. They seem to have gotten stranded on the beaches by groups, in one case a dozen whales and in another case over 100. While whale stranding is not that uncommon, why did such a large number of marine mammals get stranded on the beach all of a sudden?
Experts suggested a few possible causes but have been unable to conclude the case yet. The whales might have been too ill to swim or eat and died. Their navigation and communication system by echolocation might have been confused in very shallow waters. The groups might have been misguided by the leader or a member of the herd. Warmer water temperature might have led their preys to certain areas and the whales followed them.
In any case, such mysterious mass stranding seems to have been happening since before humans inhabited the southern islands.
Enjoy reading and learn about another mystery of nature.


Topic Reading-Vol.2429-12/5/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers
How Japan's corporate culture allows corrupt CEOs to win
Consistency may be one of the words that describe Japan’s corporate culture. Lifetime employment still is one of the commonly practiced, or at least understood, employment standards in Japan. Unlike most of the corporations in capitalist economies, new graduates are usually hired without specific job descriptions or terms of the employment in Japan. Once employed, employees are expected to do what they are assigned to do. In many cases, they continue to work in the same company for a long time, experiencing various jobs and responsibilities and learning to perform better within the organization. While such intra-company career development practice ensures consistency, it doesn’t seem to foster innovative or outward-looking attitudes or culture.
There is no single factor that caused the recent Nissan chairman’s misconducts. There is no one system or practice that ensures flawless corporate governance, either. But having ousted its absolute boss, Nissan has presumably learned a hard lesson.
Enjoy reading and learn what Japan’s employment system is like.


Topic Reading-Vol.2428-12/4/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers
Police arrest 6 after a teenage boy died in an adulthood initiation ritual in Kenya
Adulthood initiation is said to be a one-way bridge from one’s youth to adulthood. It was a traditional ceremony designed to teach a fifteen-year-old boy the customary values of his people, the Kikuyu, Kenya's most populous ethnic group. The ritual was held during the school holidays. The boy went on a trip to be bulled to harden him which seemed to have gone too far. He was then circumcised, isolated from this family and found dead.
Although such initiation ritual has been practiced for a very long time, deaths haven’t occurred often during or after the ceremony.
The boy had good grades in school and wanted to be a neurosurgeon.
Read the article and learn how a traditional custom turned to be a fatal incident.


Topic Reading-Vol.2427-12/3/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers
Why is Jack Ma a member of the Communist Party of China?
Born in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China in 1964, Jack Ma Yun is the co-founder and executive chairman of mighty Alibaba, China’s leading e-commerce enterprise. He is also one of the richest not only in China but also in the world. No wonder his primary ideology is for an open and market-driven economy.
Recently, it was revealed that he has been a member of the Communist Party of China, or CPC. He must have been very busy organizing his schedule and priorities as having been fulfilling the member’s duties while leading and managing the fast-growing Internet enterprise.
But it might have been one of the reasons the company has been growing without interfered by the ruling party, government or authorities, at least on the surface. If you look at what happened to Tencent, Alibaba’s archrival, or Wanda Group, a multinational conglomerate, it is obviously essential to build and maintain a good relationship with the absolute ruler in China.
Can Google or Facebook deal with such distinctive social system to do business there?
Enjoy reading and learn how the legendary entrepreneur is good at managing businesses.


Topic Reading-Vol.2426-12/2/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers
China baby gene editing claim 'dubious'
A new unprecedented treatment by a Chinese medical expert has sparked outrage from scientists around the world. They call the gene editing unethical or even monstrous if that was what really implemented.
Genome editing, also called gene editing, is a group of technologies that give scientists the ability to change an organism's DNA. These technologies allow genetic material to be added, removed, or altered at particular locations in the genome, according to the US National Library of Medicine.
The Chinese professor in a laboratory in Shenzhen, the capital of high-tech industry in China, claimed that he altered twin daughters’ embryos to prevent them from contracting HIV in the future while neither of their parents is infected by the deadly virus. It means there was no immediate need to alter their healthy genes. Then why did he do that? Did the parents want him to do the editing? Were they informed of sufficient information about the risks?
Though the world still isn’t ready for such ethical, moral medical treatment, technologies are advancing faster than ever before.
Read the article and learn what gene editing could mean to human lives.


Topic Reading-Vol.2425-12/1/2018

Dear MEL Topic Readers
16 personality traits and what they mean
What adjectives do you think of when trying to describe the personal features of your friends? Is there any perfectly descriptive word? Aggressive or ambitious, considerate or impulsive, dependable or reliable, social or talkative, only to name a few. Sometimes for non-native English speakers, there may be quite a few unfamiliar words that are used to describe personality traits; such as Misanthropic, Masochistic, and Phlegmatic.
Enjoy reading a list of words used to describe the *plethora of personalities.
    *plethora  a very large amount of something,